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learn:how-tos [2020/07/16 04:35]
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     * Designed to protect you against surveillance done by companies and governments     * Designed to protect you against surveillance done by companies and governments
  
-Setup+**Setup**
    - [[https://www.torproject.org/download/|Download the Tor Browser]]    - [[https://www.torproject.org/download/|Download the Tor Browser]]
    - [[https://tb-manual.torproject.org/installation/|Install the Tor Browser]]    - [[https://tb-manual.torproject.org/installation/|Install the Tor Browser]]
    - [[https://tb-manual.torproject.org/running-tor-browser/|Launch the Tor Browser]]    - [[https://tb-manual.torproject.org/running-tor-browser/|Launch the Tor Browser]]
  
-Before browsing+**Before browsing**
    - [[https://tb-manual.torproject.org/|Have a look at the manual]]    - [[https://tb-manual.torproject.org/|Have a look at the manual]]
    - Watch the [[https://media.torproject.org/video/2012-10-21-cryptoparty/UsingTorByAndrewAndSteve.mov|"Using Tor"]] from CryptoParty Boston.    - Watch the [[https://media.torproject.org/video/2012-10-21-cryptoparty/UsingTorByAndrewAndSteve.mov|"Using Tor"]] from CryptoParty Boston.
  
-Adjust security settings+**Adjust the Tor Browser security settings**
    - Before accessing [[:learn:how-tos#Tor Hidden Services|.onion sites (i.e. Onion Services)]], make sure to click on the {{https://i.imgur.com/wPP9v0M.png?nolink&30x24}}in the upper left of the browser and choose "Forbid Scripts Globally". This prevents JavaScript from leaking potentially personally identifiable information - disable for individual sites if needed.    - Before accessing [[:learn:how-tos#Tor Hidden Services|.onion sites (i.e. Onion Services)]], make sure to click on the {{https://i.imgur.com/wPP9v0M.png?nolink&30x24}}in the upper left of the browser and choose "Forbid Scripts Globally". This prevents JavaScript from leaking potentially personally identifiable information - disable for individual sites if needed.
    - set the [[https://tb-manual.torproject.org/security-settings/|security setting level]] to ''Safest'' and lower it **only** if it has major effect on your browsing experience. The Security setting can be found under the Tor logo in navigation bar.    - set the [[https://tb-manual.torproject.org/security-settings/|security setting level]] to ''Safest'' and lower it **only** if it has major effect on your browsing experience. The Security setting can be found under the Tor logo in navigation bar.
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 ==== Firefox Browser ==== ==== Firefox Browser ====
  
-For browsing that doesn'require anonymity (i.e. browsing that requires you to log in), switch to Mozilla Firefox. It's as good as Chrome, fast and the most extendible browser with most add-ons. It's available for Windows, Mac, and Linux. Firefox supports many useful security privacy enhancing plugins discussed next.+For browsing that can'be done anonymously (i.e. browsing that requires you to log in -- think banking, shopping, social media), switch to Mozilla Firefox. It's as good as Chrome, fast and the most extendible browser with most add-ons. It's available for Windows, Mac, and Linux. Firefox supports many useful security privacy enhancing plugins discussed next.
  
 **Ad block plugins** **Ad block plugins**
-    *[[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/ublock-origin/|uBlock Origin]]+    *[[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/ublock-origin/|uBlock Origin]] has become the de-facto ad-block plugin for Firefox.
  
 **Security plugins** **Security plugins**
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 **Privacy plugins to block tracking** **Privacy plugins to block tracking**
-  * [[https://​disconnect.me/​|Disconnect.me]] ([[https://​github.com/​disconnectme/​disconnect|free and open source with GPLv3 license]]). +  * [[https://​disconnect.me/​|Disconnect.me]] is a free and open source add-on that blocks tracking elements based on block lists.
-  * [[https://github.com/gorhill/uBlock|uBlock Origin]] is an add-on for Firefox and Chrome that blocks a variety of advertisement and tracking companies – which are one and the same in many cases.+
   * [[https://www.eff.org/privacybadger|Privacy Badger]] does a similar job, but based on heuristics rather than block lists.   * [[https://www.eff.org/privacybadger|Privacy Badger]] does a similar job, but based on heuristics rather than block lists.
 +  * [[https://addons.mozilla.org/sv-SE/firefox/addon/happy-bonobo-disable-webrtc/|Disable WebRTC]] prevents IP-address from leaking via WebRTC connections (note: may break some sites).
  
 **Advanced plugins** **Advanced plugins**
  
-WARNING! Only enable JavaScript, and especially plugins like Java, and Flash for sites you **trust**.+**WARNING!** Only enable JavaScript, and especially plugins like Java, and Flash for sites you __trust__.
  
   * [[https://github.com/gorhill/uMatrix|uMatrix]]   * [[https://github.com/gorhill/uMatrix|uMatrix]]
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 Your browser trusts many certification authorities and intermediate sub-authorities quietly, every time you enter an HTTPS web site. The Firefox add-on [[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/certificate-patrol/|Certificate Patrol]] reveals when certificates are updated, so you can ensure it was a legitimate change. Your browser trusts many certification authorities and intermediate sub-authorities quietly, every time you enter an HTTPS web site. The Firefox add-on [[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/certificate-patrol/|Certificate Patrol]] reveals when certificates are updated, so you can ensure it was a legitimate change.
  
-//FIXME Please review add-ons such as  +//FIXME Please review add-ons such as// 
-* [[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-us/firefox/addon/betterprivacy/|BetterPrivacy]] +    * [[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-us/firefox/addon/smart-referer/?src=dp-dl-othersby|SmartReferer]] 
-* [[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-us/firefox/addon/beef-taco-targeted-advertising/|BeefTaco]] +    * [[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-us/firefox/addon/anonymox/|anonymoX (proxies!)]]
-* [[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-us/firefox/addon/smart-referer/?src=dp-dl-othersby|SmartReferer]] +
-* [[https://addons.mozilla.org/en-us/firefox/addon/anonymox/|anonymoX (proxies!)]]//+
  
 ===== Web search ===== ===== Web search =====
  
-Another thing you might do often on the web is use Google to search things. There are plenty of alternatives to Google who all state that they keep minimal or no IP logs, but blind trust isn't as good as using Tor Browser to actively hide your IP. Most popular ones are:+Another thing you might do often on the web is use Google to search things. There are plenty of alternatives to Google who all state that they keep minimal or no IP logs, but blind trust is never a good option. A much better choice is to always use the Tor Browser to actively hide your IP. Even better, some search engines provide a Tor Onion Service (''.onion'' site) that makes tracking the users even harder. Most popular ones are: 
 + 
 +  *  [[https://duckduckgo.com/|https://duckduckgo.com/]] (Tor Onion Service https://3g2upl4pq6kufc4m.onion/
 +      * partly proprietary, hosted in the USA, and provides you with anonymized Yahoo search results
  
   *  [[https://startpage.com/|https://startpage.com/]]   *  [[https://startpage.com/|https://startpage.com/]]
       * proprietary, hosted in the USA/Netherlands, and provides you with anonymized Google search results (including images)       * proprietary, hosted in the USA/Netherlands, and provides you with anonymized Google search results (including images)
-  *  [[https://duckduckgo.com/|https://duckduckgo.com/]] +
-      * partly proprietary, hosted in the USA, and provides you with anonymized Yahoo search results+
   *  [[https://searx.me/|https://searx.me/]]   *  [[https://searx.me/|https://searx.me/]]
       * open source, selfhostable meta-search engine, [[https://github.com/asciimoo/searx/wiki/Searx-instances|list of public instances]]       * open source, selfhostable meta-search engine, [[https://github.com/asciimoo/searx/wiki/Searx-instances|list of public instances]]
   *  [[https://search.disconnect.me/|https://search.disconnect.me/]]   *  [[https://search.disconnect.me/|https://search.disconnect.me/]]
       * Anonymized results using Google, Bing, Yahoo!, or DuckDuckGo.       * Anonymized results using Google, Bing, Yahoo!, or DuckDuckGo.
-  *  [[https://metager.de/tor/en/|https://metager.de/tor/en/]]+  *  [[https://metager.de/|https://metager.de/]] (Tor Onion Service http://b7cxf4dkdsko6ah2.onion/)
       * from SuMa e.V., a german non-profit organisation that supports free access to knowledge, provides Web search as a TOR hidden service       * from SuMa e.V., a german non-profit organisation that supports free access to knowledge, provides Web search as a TOR hidden service
  
-  Though if you'd like to keep using google at least use its encrypted version: [[https://encrypted.google.com|https://encrypted.google.com]].+**How to change default search engine** 
 +    * [[https://support.mozilla.org/sv/kb/change-your-default-search-settings-firefox|Firefox]] 
 +    * [[https://support.google.com/chrome/answer/95426?co=GENIE.Platform%3DDesktop&hl=en|Google Chrome]]
  
-  * In **Chrome**  go to settings→Manage Search Engines and add a search engine (example url: [[https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=%s|https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=%s]]). For startpage go here: [[https://startpage.com/eng/download-startpage-plugin.html|https://startpage.com/eng/download-startpage-plugin.html]] 
-  * In **Firefox**  you can do the same for startpage but might have problems with encrypted.google in recent versions of firefox. Go to the page you intend to make your search engine and select the logo to the right of your search bar (top right), and select Add "[searchEngineName]" to change search engines. 
  
 ===== General Tips ===== ===== General Tips =====
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   * Don't use a password across multiple sites or the same as the one you use to encrypt ie your hard drive. Also don't google it or anything alike. [[:documentation:password|More tips on good passwords]]   * Don't use a password across multiple sites or the same as the one you use to encrypt ie your hard drive. Also don't google it or anything alike. [[:documentation:password|More tips on good passwords]]
   * Use antivirus software and a firewall. Do regular scans & updates   * Use antivirus software and a firewall. Do regular scans & updates
-  * Regularly update all of the software you find on this page+  * Regularly update all of the software to ensure security vulnerabilities are patched.
   * Check if you have an account that has been compromised in a data breach on [[https://haveibeenpwned.com/|HaveIBeenPwned.com]]   * Check if you have an account that has been compromised in a data breach on [[https://haveibeenpwned.com/|HaveIBeenPwned.com]]
  
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 Uninstall Adobe Flash. Uninstall Adobe Flash.
  
-====== Own Website ======+====== Personal Website hardening ======
  
 The following is for people running their own website. The following is for people running their own website.
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   * Make your website available via HTTPS, or even better, redirect unencrypted connection attempts to the encrypted version. First follow these instructions for [[https://github.com/ioerror/duraconf/blob/master/startssl/README.markdown|getting the certificate]] then install it as in the appropiate tutorial [[https://www.globalsign.com/support/installcert.php|here]]. Secure Sockets Layer provides an encrypted connection between the client and the server/certificate holder.   * Make your website available via HTTPS, or even better, redirect unencrypted connection attempts to the encrypted version. First follow these instructions for [[https://github.com/ioerror/duraconf/blob/master/startssl/README.markdown|getting the certificate]] then install it as in the appropiate tutorial [[https://www.globalsign.com/support/installcert.php|here]]. Secure Sockets Layer provides an encrypted connection between the client and the server/certificate holder.
  
-===== Closing Unused Ports (Linux) ===== +**Close Unused Ports (Linux)**
- +
-**Check open ports.**+
  
 From the command line, you can see which ports are open on which interface by typing: From the command line, you can see which ports are open on which interface by typing:
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 ''*''  means it is listened on all interfaces (reachable from the outside) ''*''  means it is listened on all interfaces (reachable from the outside)
  
-''localhost''  means the ports are only opened locally (not reachable from the outside).+''localhost''  means the ports are only opened locally (only reachable from the user's own computer).
  
 Services can be removed, disabled, or configured to only listen locally. Services can be removed, disabled, or configured to only listen locally.
 +
 +
 +==== Secure communication ====
 +
 +**Public key encryption**
 +
 +Uses who desire secure communication, whether it's email or instant messaging, benefit greatly from understanding the basics of public key encryption (a.k.a. asymmetric encryption). Please watch (one or more) of these videos to get a general understanding of what public key cryptography is about:
 +
 +  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQDCe585Lnc|5 minutes]]: Simply Explained explains the principles of public key encryption
 +  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0K4ddNzmTw|4 minutes]]: CompTIA Security+ certification material on public key cryptography
 +
 +For people who want slightly more detailed look into how Diffie-Hellman and RSA algorithms work, see
 +
 +  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YEBfamv-_do|9 minutes]]: Art of the Problem explains Diffie-Hellman key exchange
 +  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXB-V_Keiu8|17 minutes]]: Art of the Problem explains RSA encryption
 +
 +  * [[https://youtu.be/MpwkB-F5dvg|5 Minuten]]: E-Mail-Verschlüsselung: Der digitale Briefumschlag (DE)
 +  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=V9k0mnIFuOI|5 minutes]]: PGP benutzen Stopmotion-Film (DE)
 +
 +**General principles**
 +
 +    * Symmetric encryption can protect content such as any length message, call, file, or even video stream.
 +    * Symmetric encryption doesn't solve key delivery problem: Sending symmetric key to contact without any protection is useless.
 +    * Key delivery of symmetric key is handled by asymmetric ciphers.
 +        * Diffie-Hellman (derive key by combining private and public value)
 +        * RSA (encrypt key with another key)
 +        * Diffie-Hellman is better than RSA for key 
 +
 +**Encryption must be end-to-end**
 +
 +    * Client-server encryption is useful when browsing web, accessing online bank, bying things online: Effectively End-to-end encryption because other end is the server.
 +    * When the other end becomes a buddy we want to talk to, server becomes an untrusted third party.
 +    * Many bad messaging apps like Telegram by default send everything via client-server encryption, meaning server can read, modify, and copy the message content.
 +    * For messaging with buddies we need end-to-end encryption, where messages are encrypted and decrypted only by you and your buddy.
 +    * This is equally important, whether we're talking about email, instant messaging, calls, or video calls.
 +
 +**End-to-end encryption requires two equally important parts**
 +
 +    * Private key(s) must never leave the user's device without password protection that only the user knows
 +    * Public keys from contact's must be verified to actually originate from contact's device, otherwise end-to-end encryption can be eavesdropped with something called a man-in-the-middle attack. Verification is done in almost all applications by comparing public key fingerprints, also called safety numbers, and security codes.
 +
 +
 +====== Chat ======
 +
 +===== Signal protocol =====
 +
 +Signal-protocol is a modernized version of OTR-protocol that is designed to work in asynchronous environments such as on smartphones. This is because on smartphones apps open and close so frequently, OTR-sessions (that need to be established for each time they're used) become inconvenient.
 +
 +More information
 +  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tOMiAeRwpPA#t=12m45s|Next Generation Threats]] by Moxie Marlinspike
 +  * [[https://whispersystems.org/docs/|Technical documentation]]
 +
 +Applications that use Signal protocol or similar (so called [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_Ratchet_Algorithm|double-ratchet algorithm]] based) protocols
 +
 +  * [[https://signal.org/|Signal]] (iOS, Android, Chromium)
 +  * [[https://wire.com|Wire]] (iOS, Android, Linux, Mac OS, Windows)
 +  * [[https://conversations.im/|Conversations]]
 +
 +
 +===== OTR =====
 +
 +**Warning, the OTRv3 is starting to show its age, e.g. wrt. the key size used (1536-bits). The [[https://github.com/otrv4/otrv4|OTRv4]] standardization is still a work-in-progress, thus Signal protocol should be favoured until the next gen OTR is ready to deploy.**
 +
 +Off-the-Record (OTR) messaging allows you to have private conversations over instant messaging by providing:
 +
 +  * **End-to-end encryption**: No one else can read your instant messages.
 +  * **Authentication**: You can verify that end-to-end encryption is not under [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man-in-the-middle_attack|man-in-the-middle-attack]].
 +  * **Deniability**: The messages you send do not have digital signatures that are checkable by a third party. Anyone can forge messages after a conversation to make them look like they came from you. However, during a conversation, your correspondent is assured the messages he sees are authentic and unmodified.
 +  * **Forward secrecy**: If you lose control of your private keys, no previous conversation is compromised (assuming control of log files was not lost at the same time).
 +
 +A variety of chat clients are available which use OTR:
 +
 +Clients that support the [[https://otr.cypherpunks.ca/|OTR-plugin]]
 +  * [[https://gajim.org|Gajim]] (Windows, Linux, MacOS)
 +  * [[https://pidgin.im|Pidgin]] (Windows, Linux, MacOS)
 +  * [[https://adium.im/about/|Adium]] (MacOS only)
 +
 +Clients with built in support for OTR
 +
 +  * ChatSecure ([[https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/chatsecure/id464200063?mt=8|iOS]], Android: [[https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=info.guardianproject.otr.app.im|Play Store]], [[https://guardianproject.info/releases/chatsecure-latest.apk|APK]])
 +  * [[https://github.com/siacs/Conversations#conversations|Conversations]] (Android)
 +  * [[https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/wiki/doc/TorMessenger#Downloads|Tor Messenger]] (Windows, Linux, MacOS)(**In beta!**)
 +
 +=== How to use ===
 +  * [[https://theintercept.com/2015/07/14/communicating-secret-watched/|Chatting in Secret While We’re All Being Watched ]] (fantastic article by Micah Lee)
 +  * [[https://ssd.eff.org/en/module/how-use-otr-mac|How to: Use OTR for Mac]]
 +  * [[https://www.bestvpn.com/blog/30751/tor-project-releases-secure-encrypted-tor-messenger-how-to-use-it/|Tor Messenger how-to]]
 +
 +Advanced:
 +
 +  * [[https://www.calyxinstitute.org/education/how-to-using-jabber.calyxinstitute.org-server-via-its-tor-hidden-service-with-pidgin-and-off-the-record|Routing messages via public Tor Hidden Service XMPP servers]]
 +
 +
 +===== IRC =====
 +
 +==== IRC over Tor ====
 +
 +Note that if you don't use the Tor Browser Bundle (but just tor) replace 9150 with **9050**
 +
 +For the **XChat**  IRC Client (or [[http://hexchat.github.io/downloads.html|Hexchat]]):
 +
 +  * Start Tor.
 +  * In Xchat go to Settings→Options→Network Setup and enter the following:
 +
 +<code>
 +      Hostname: 127.0.0.1
 +      Port: 9150
 +      Type: Socks5
 +      Use Proxy for: both
 +</code>
 +
 +  * Save and make sure you don't connect with the nickname you use without tor.
 +
 +For the **irssi**  IRC Client go here: [[https://www.cryptoparty.in/documentation/irssi_plus_tor|https://www.cryptoparty.in/documentation/irssi_plus_tor]]
 +
 +For the **mIRC**  Client:
 +
 +  * Press Alt+O to open the options dialog
 +  * Go to Connect → Proxy section
 +  * Under Connection select Both
 +  * Under Protocol select Socks
 +  * Under Hostname enter "127.0.0.1"
 +  * Under Port enter 9150 & press OK.
 +
 +There are also tor-internal IRC servers to which you can only connect once you set up the above. [[http://www.reddit.com/r/onions/comments/15kvb3/anyone_have_a_list_of_currently_working_onion_irc/|You can find most of them here]]
 +
 +==== IRC with I2P ====
 +
 +  * Set up I2P [[:learn:how-tos#i2p|as described further below]]
 +  * Start it, as well as your IRC-Client (ie mIRC or Xchat)
 +  * Connect to a new server: 127.0.0.1 Port 6668
 +  * Done. There are also more IRC servers than the default one above. For learning how to join them read the bottom of [[http://pastebin.com/xWzw10wW|this page]] but the above is the most active one.
 +  * //[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cCN25hxjFjE|Full step by step guide for I2P over mIRC on youtube]]//
 +
 +===== Pidgin over Tor =====
 +
 +  * Go to the Accounts, select your Account
 +  * Select Edit Account
 +  * Go to the Advanced Tab
 +  * Under Proxy Options select proxy type SOCKS v5
 +  * Enter 127.0.0.1 for the host and 9150 for the port
 +  * Leave user/pass blank
 +
 +See also: [[https://help.riseup.net/en/chat/clients/pidgin#tor-with-pidgin-configuration|https://help.riseup.net/en/chat/clients/pidgin#tor-with-pidgin-configuration]]
 +
 +===== Securing pidgin on GNU/Linux =====
 +
 +  * For information on how to secure pidgin on GNU/Linux [[https://help.riseup.net/en/chat/clients/pidgin#securing-pidgin-on-gnulinux|https://help.riseup.net/en/chat/clients/pidgin#securing-pidgin-on-gnulinux]]
 +  * For information on how to properly install Apparmor: [[https://wiki.debian.org/AppArmor/HowTo|https://wiki.debian.org/AppArmor/HowTo]]
 +
 +===== Other =====
 +
 +  * [[http://retroshare.sourceforge.net/|Retroshare]] lets you //securely//  chat and share files with your friends and family, using a web-of-trust to authenticate peers and OpenSSL to encrypt all communication. It provides filesharing, chat, messages, forums and channels.
 +  * [[https://github.com/agl/pond|pond]] is a heavily encrypted replacement for email
 +  * [[http://echelon.i2p.to/qti2pmessenger/|I2P Messenger]] is an end-to-end encrypted serverless communication application over [[:learn:how-tos#i2p|I2P]]. It supports file transfer and has a search for other users.
 +  * [[https://bitmessage.org/wiki/Main_Page|BitMessage]] is a P2P communications protocol used to send encrypted messages to another person or to many subscribers. It is decentralized and trustless, meaning that you need-not inherently trust any entities like root certificate authorities. It uses strong authentication which means that the sender of a message cannot be spoofed, and it aims to hide "non-content" data, like the sender and receiver of messages, from passive eavesdroppers like those running warrantless wiretapping programs. [[https://wastun.tem.li/howto_bitmessage|Tutorial for setting up and using Bitmessage – an encrypted communications platform based on Bitcoin]]
 +
  
 ====== Email ====== ====== Email ======
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 ===== Which provider? ===== ===== Which provider? =====
  
-With emailyou //always//  have to trust the operator. Sono matter what, try to use real end-to-end encryption like OpenPGP. \\ Check [[https://prism-break.org/en/subcategories/web-services-email-accounts/|https://prism-break.org/en/subcategories/web-services-email-accounts/]] or [[http://prxbx.com/email/|http://prxbx.com/email/]] for recommendations.+Emaillike all secure communicationhas two aspects to protect**content**, and **metadata**Practically no email provider provides you with either of them on its own.
  
-One good Email provider is [[https://protonmail.com/|ProtonMail]].+For email protection, you want any provider that allows you to enforce your own privacy by doing the following 
 +    * Access the email with email client that offers end-to-end encryption (protection for content). 
 +    * Register and access the email account anonymously via Tor (protection for metadata). 
 +    * Doesn't require personal information during use or registration.
  
-For more control over your email, you have to either [[:learn:run_your_own_mail_server|run your own mail server]] or have a good //personal//  trust relationship with the provider. \\ There are some ways to get a new email account with a bit more privacy:+Thus, if e.g. the service requires you to confirm your phone numberit is not anonymous, and it does not protect your privacy even if you could otherwise use Tor to register and access itthey already know who you are. Same goes for payment details, so make sure to evaluate whether paid features are worth it. Sometimes being anonymous and tracked is more private than paying for the service and not being tracked although the service provider knows who you are.
  
-  * Ask a geek/nerd friend +Check [[https://prism-break.org/en/subcategories/web-services-email-accounts/|https://prism-break.org/en/subcategories/web-services-email-accounts/]] or [[http://prxbx.com/email/|http://prxbx.com/email/]] for recommendations.
-  * Pay for the service (instead of paying with your data) +
-  * Combine the above (actually the very best option) +
-  * Use email from a non-profit organization (and donate money if you can) +
-      * See [[https://we.riseup.net/riseuphelp+en/radical-servers|radical servers]] for some options.+
  
-===== Crypto! (GPG-Encryption) =====+One good Email provider is [[https://protonmail.com/|ProtonMail]]. Another good alternative is to use an e-mail provided by a non-profit such as [[https://riseup.net/|Riseup]] (Make sure to [[https://riseup.net/en/donate|donate]], even if it's just a little). 
 + 
 +===== PGP end-to-end encryption ===== 
 + 
 +As you may know, your email goes through the data traffic like a postcard in snail-mail: Everyone can read it!  
 + 
 +So, like snail-mail, it would make sense to put your emails in a closed envelope. The most common envelope is called **PGP**. The terminology around PGP is quite a jungle, so below is a dissection that explains the relation between these terms: 
 + 
 +    * PGP is an abbreviation of the Pretty Good Privacy, an encryption program originally written by Phil Zimmermann in 1991.  
 +    * PGP is a commercial product and is now owned by NortonLifeLock. 
 +    * [[https://www.openpgp.org/|OpenPGP]] is the open standard that defines the appearance of the envelope all OpenPGP applications use. 
 +    * ''gpg'' or Gnu Privacy Guard is a common OpenPGP client program for Linux operating systems. 
 +    * [[https://gpg4win.org/|Gpg4win]] is like ''gpg'' but for the Windows operating system 
 +    * Another OpenPGP client program is called [[https://www.enigmail.net/index.php/en/|Enigmail]], a plugin for the [[https://www.thunderbird.net/en-US/|Thunderbird]] and Postbox email clients.
  
-As you may know, your email goes through the data traffic like a postcard in snailmail: Everyone can read it! So, like snailmail, it would make sense to put your emails in a closed envelope. One possible envelope is called **GPG**. \\ The Pretty Good Privacy software was originally written by Phil Zimmermann, and is now owned by Symantec. The means of encryption defined by that software are also called PGP - these standarts are now freely available as OpenPGP which derived from the original PGP. \\ The GPG software is an independent implementation of the OpenPGP standards, so you can use it to exchange encrypted messages with people using other OpenPGP implementations (and Symantec's PGP). 
  
 ==== Warning! ==== ==== Warning! ====
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   - **Lack of deniability**: In PGP, the authorship of messages is verified with what are called digital signatures. These digital signatures can only be created by the sender, and any message you send can be proven to have been written by you.   - **Lack of deniability**: In PGP, the authorship of messages is verified with what are called digital signatures. These digital signatures can only be created by the sender, and any message you send can be proven to have been written by you.
  
-These problems have since been solved in modern end-to-end encrypted messaging systems like OTR, Signal, etc. that are also easier to use (see below). Therefore, unless you absolutely have to, it is advised to always use modern messaging applications instead of PGP. +These problems have since been solved in modern end-to-end encrypted messaging porotocols like OTR, Signal protocol, OMEMO, etc. that are also easier to use (see below). Therefore, unless you absolutely have to use email, it is advised to **always** use modern messaging applications instead of PGP.
-==== Understand ==== +
- +
-For your first time, you should get a basic understanding at least of the concept of asymmetric encryption (often called **public key encryption**). Please watch one of those videos before you begin using it: +
- +
-  * [[http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/webwise/2012/04/secrets-of-online-security.shtml|3 minutes]]: BBC science presenter Dr Yan Wong explains (without mathematics) the principle of how Alice and Bob can use "digital padlocks" to protect their messages from being read by Ed the eavesdropper +
-  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CR8ZFRVmQLg|2 minutes]]: explaining symmetcric and asymmetric +
-  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0K4ddNzmTw|4 minutes]]: maybe watch the whole series! +
-  * [[https://youtu.be/MpwkB-F5dvg|5 Minuten]]: E-Mail-Verschlüsselung: Der digitale Briefumschlag (DE) +
-  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=V9k0mnIFuOI|5 minutes]]: PGP benutzen Stopmotion-Film (DE)+
  
 ==== Use a Mailclient with GPG support ==== ==== Use a Mailclient with GPG support ====
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   * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m56dsDc2808|How to use GPG Encryption (with GPA)]]   * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m56dsDc2808|How to use GPG Encryption (with GPA)]]
- 
-====== Chat ====== 
- 
-===== OTR ===== 
- 
-Off-the-Record (OTR) messaging allows you to have private conversations over instant messaging by providing: 
- 
-  * **End-to-end encryption**: No one else can read your instant messages. 
-  * **Authentication**: You can verify that end-to-end encryption is not under [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man-in-the-middle_attack|man-in-the-middle-attack]]. 
-  * **Deniability**: The messages you send do not have digital signatures that are checkable by a third party. Anyone can forge messages after a conversation to make them look like they came from you. However, during a conversation, your correspondent is assured the messages he sees are authentic and unmodified. 
-  * **Forward secrecy**: If you lose control of your private keys, no previous conversation is compromised (assuming control of log files was not lost at the same time). 
- 
-A variety of chat clients are available which use OTR: 
- 
-Clients that support the [[https://otr.cypherpunks.ca/|OTR-plugin]] 
-  * [[https://gajim.org|Gajim]] (Windows, Linux, MacOS) 
-  * [[https://pidgin.im|Pidgin]] (Windows, Linux, MacOS) 
-  * [[https://adium.im/about/|Adium]] (MacOS only) 
- 
-Clients with built in support for OTR 
- 
-  * ChatSecure ([[https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/chatsecure/id464200063?mt=8|iOS]], Android: [[https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=info.guardianproject.otr.app.im|Play Store]], [[https://guardianproject.info/releases/chatsecure-latest.apk|APK]]) 
-  * [[https://github.com/siacs/Conversations#conversations|Conversations]] (Android) 
-  * [[https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/wiki/doc/TorMessenger#Downloads|Tor Messenger]] (Windows, Linux, MacOS)(**In beta!**) 
- 
-=== How to use === 
-  * [[https://theintercept.com/2015/07/14/communicating-secret-watched/|Chatting in Secret While We’re All Being Watched ]] (fantastic article by Micah Lee) 
-  * [[https://ssd.eff.org/en/module/how-use-otr-mac|How to: Use OTR for Mac]] 
-  * [[https://www.bestvpn.com/blog/30751/tor-project-releases-secure-encrypted-tor-messenger-how-to-use-it/|Tor Messenger how-to]] 
- 
-Advanced: 
- 
-  * [[https://www.calyxinstitute.org/education/how-to-using-jabber.calyxinstitute.org-server-via-its-tor-hidden-service-with-pidgin-and-off-the-record|Routing messages via public Tor Hidden Service XMPP servers]] 
- 
-===== Signal protocol ===== 
- 
-Signal-protocol is a modernized version of OTR-protocol that is designed to work in asynchronous environments such as on smartphones. This is because on smartphones apps open and close so frequently, OTR-sessions (that need to be established for each time they're used) become inconvenient. 
- 
-More information 
-  * [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tOMiAeRwpPA#t=12m45s|Next Generation Threats]] by Moxie Marlinspike 
-  * [[https://whispersystems.org/docs/|Technical documentation]] 
- 
-Applications that use Signal protocol or similar (so called [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_Ratchet_Algorithm|double-ratchet algorithm]] based) protocols 
- 
-  * [[https://signal.org/|Signal]] (iOS, Android, Chromium) 
-  * [[https://wire.com|Wire]] (iOS, Android, Linux, Mac OS, Windows, Web) 
-  * [[https://conversations.im/|Conversations]] 
- 
-===== IRC ===== 
- 
-==== IRC over Tor ==== 
- 
-Note that if you don't use the Tor Browser Bundle (but just tor) replace 9150 with **9050** 
- 
-For the **XChat**  IRC Client (or [[http://hexchat.github.io/downloads.html|Hexchat]]): 
- 
-  * Start Tor. 
-  * In Xchat go to Settings→Options→Network Setup and enter the following: 
- 
-<code> 
-      Hostname: 127.0.0.1 
-      Port: 9150 
-      Type: Socks5 
-      Use Proxy for: both 
-</code> 
- 
-  * Save and make sure you don't connect with the nickname you use without tor. 
- 
-For the **irssi**  IRC Client go here: [[https://www.cryptoparty.in/documentation/irssi_plus_tor|https://www.cryptoparty.in/documentation/irssi_plus_tor]] 
- 
-For the **mIRC**  Client: 
- 
-  * Press Alt+O to open the options dialog 
-  * Go to Connect → Proxy section 
-  * Under Connection select Both 
-  * Under Protocol select Socks 
-  * Under Hostname enter "127.0.0.1" 
-  * Under Port enter 9150 & press OK. 
- 
-There are also tor-internal IRC servers to which you can only connect once you set up the above. [[http://www.reddit.com/r/onions/comments/15kvb3/anyone_have_a_list_of_currently_working_onion_irc/|You can find most of them here]] 
- 
-==== IRC with I2P ==== 
- 
-  * Set up I2P [[:learn:how-tos#i2p|as described further below]] 
-  * Start it, as well as your IRC-Client (ie mIRC or Xchat) 
-  * Connect to a new server: 127.0.0.1 Port 6668 
-  * Done. There are also more IRC servers than the default one above. For learning how to join them read the bottom of [[http://pastebin.com/xWzw10wW|this page]] but the above is the most active one. 
-  * //[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cCN25hxjFjE|Full step by step guide for I2P over mIRC on youtube]]// 
- 
-===== Pidgin over Tor ===== 
- 
-  * Go to the Accounts, select your Account 
-  * Select Edit Account 
-  * Go to the Advanced Tab 
-  * Under Proxy Options select proxy type SOCKS v5 
-  * Enter 127.0.0.1 for the host and 9150 for the port 
-  * Leave user/pass blank 
- 
-See also: [[https://help.riseup.net/en/chat/clients/pidgin#tor-with-pidgin-configuration|https://help.riseup.net/en/chat/clients/pidgin#tor-with-pidgin-configuration]] 
- 
-===== Securing pidgin on GNU/Linux ===== 
- 
-  * For information on how to secure pidgin on GNU/Linux [[https://help.riseup.net/en/chat/clients/pidgin#securing-pidgin-on-gnulinux|https://help.riseup.net/en/chat/clients/pidgin#securing-pidgin-on-gnulinux]] 
-  * For information on how to properly install Apparmor: [[https://wiki.debian.org/AppArmor/HowTo|https://wiki.debian.org/AppArmor/HowTo]] 
- 
-===== Other ===== 
- 
-  * [[http://retroshare.sourceforge.net/|Retroshare]] lets you //securely//  chat and share files with your friends and family, using a web-of-trust to authenticate peers and OpenSSL to encrypt all communication. It provides filesharing, chat, messages, forums and channels. 
-  * [[https://github.com/agl/pond|pond]] is a heavily encrypted replacement for email 
-  * [[https://​github.com/​prof7bit/TorChat/​downloads|TorChat]] is a peer to peer instant messenger with a completely decentralized design, built on top of [[:learn:how-tos#​tor_hidden_services|Tor' s hidden services]], giving you extremely strong // anonymity//  while being very easy to use without the need to install or configure anything. 
-  * [[http://echelon.i2p.to/qti2pmessenger/|I2P Messenger]] is an end-to-end encrypted serverless communication application over [[:learn:how-tos#i2p|I2P]]. It supports file transfer and has a search for other users. 
-  * [[https://bitmessage.org/wiki/Main_Page|BitMessage]] is a P2P communications protocol used to send encrypted messages to another person or to many subscribers. It is decentralized and trustless, meaning that you need-not inherently trust any entities like root certificate authorities. It uses strong authentication which means that the sender of a message cannot be spoofed, and it aims to hide "non-content" data, like the sender and receiver of messages, from passive eavesdroppers like those running warrantless wiretapping programs. [[https://wastun.tem.li/howto_bitmessage|Tutorial for setting up and using Bitmessage – an encrypted communications platform based on Bitcoin]] 
  
  
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 A darknet is an internet or private network, where information and content are shared by darknet participants anonymously. More accurately all of them share being //anonymous overlay networks//. A darknet is an internet or private network, where information and content are shared by darknet participants anonymously. More accurately all of them share being //anonymous overlay networks//.
  
-===== Tor Hidden Services =====+===== Tor Onion Services =====
  
-Tor can also provide anonymity to websites and other servers. Servers configured to receive inbound connections only through Tor are called hidden services. Rather than revealing a server's IP address (and thus its network location), an hidden service is accessed through its .onion address. The Tor network understands these addresses and can route data to and from hidden services, while preserving the anonymity of both parties.+Tor can also provide anonymity to websites and other servers. Servers configured to receive inbound connections only through Tor are called Onion Services (hidden services by their former name). Rather than revealing a server's IP address (and thus its network location), an Onion Service is accessed through its .onion address. The Tor network understands these addresses and can route data to and from Onion Services, while preserving the anonymity of both parties.
  
   * Follow the [[:learn:how-tos#tor_browser_bundle|guide for setting up the Tor Browser Bundle above]]   * Follow the [[:learn:how-tos#tor_browser_bundle|guide for setting up the Tor Browser Bundle above]]
-  * That's it already. [[http://pastebin.com/zRLGDRCM|You can find some hidden services (.onion sites) here]] that you can now open up with the TorBrowser+  * That's it already. [[http://pastebin.com/zRLGDRCM|You can find some Onion Services (.onion sites) here]] that you can now open up with the Tor Browser.
  
 ===== I2P ===== ===== I2P =====